Examination of the urine considered a routine extension of the physical examination in all patients.
Neutrophils: are a prominent feature of urinary infection but may also be present in infl ammatory renal conditions.
* Causes of sterile pyuria
Lymphocytes: may be seen in prostatitis, cystitis.
Urine culture: Culture and sensitivity differentiates contamination from true infection and guides treatment. A pure growth of >10 colony forming units /mL is the conventional diagnostic criterion for urinary tract infection
Casts: are plugs of Tamm– Horsfall mucoprotein within the renal tubules, with a characteristic cylindrical shape. They are classified according to appearance and the cellular elements embedded in them. Though produced in normal kidneys, they can be valuable clues to the presence of renal disease
Non-cellular casts: Hyaline casts: mucoprotein alone and virtually transparent. A non specific finding that occurs in concentrated urine.
Granular casts: granular material is embedded in the cast. Often pathological but non specific.
Broad or waxy casts: hyaline material with a waxy appearance under the microscope. Form in dilated, poorly functioning tubules of advanced CKD.