The most common medical problem that causes damage to the kidneys is uncontrolled diabetes. When a diabetic has a high blood glucose, this causes an enlargement of a part of the cell wall of the glomerular capillary filter called the basement membrane.
Capillaries and other cells begin to enlarge.This leads to scarring or sclerosis of the glomerulus and results in the glomerulus becoming a damaged filter.
Proteins from the blood can leak through the damaged filter and appear in the urine.
This leakage can lead to further kidney scarring and damage.
High blood pressure can contribute to further glomerular scarring and damage.
Kidney problems can also be caused by urinary tract infections, medications, surgical procedures, kidney stones, as well as certain types of cancer.
Diseases such as lupus erythematosus and sickle cell anemia can damage many parts of the body including the kidneys.